How can you learn basic grammar rules

How can you learn basic grammar rules?

Conditional Tenses:
Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen.
In all cases, these sentences are made up of an ‘if clause’ and a main clause.
Classifying Conditional tenses based on the nature of the condition:
a) If you study hard, you will get a medal.
(Open Condition)
b) If you studied hard, you would get a medal.
(Improbable or imaginary condition)
c) If you had studied hard, you would have got a medal.
(Unfulfilled or unreal condition)
Classifying Conditional Tenses:
Open Condition:
a) Usage: A possible condition and its probable result
b) If clause verb tense: Simple present: If you study hard
c) Main clause verb tense: Simple Future(will /shall /can/May + plain infinitive) you will get a medal.
Improbable Condition:
a) Usage: A hypothetical condition and its probable result
b) If clause verb tense: Simple past: If you studied hard
c) Main clause verb tense: Present/ Continuous Conditional (would/should/could/might + plain infinitive) you would get a medal.
Unfulfilled Condition:
a) Usage: An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past
b) If clause verb tense: Past perfect: If you had studied hard
c) Main clause verb tense: Perfect /Continuous Conditional (would/should/could/might + perfect infinitive) you would have got a medal.
Conditionals: Open Condition
Used to describe that something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled or refers to a possible condition and its probable result.

1.
Facts:
If you hit the dog, it will bite you.
2.
Give Warnings:
If you don't leave, I'll call the police.
3.
Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation:
If you drop that glass, it might break.
4.
Interrogative version:
What will you do if you miss the bus?
5.
Reverse order:
If it rains, you will get wet.
You will get wet if it rain.

Conditionals: Improbable Condition
Used to describe that something which we don't expect to happen or refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result.
Although the If clause takes a past tense, the sentence actually talks about the Present.

1 Hypothetical Situation:
If I had a degree, I could get a job easily.
2 Present Continuous Conditional (expresses an unfinished or continuing action or situation):
You wouldn't be smiling if you knew the truth.
3 Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation:
He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
4 Interrogative version:
If you were a millionaire, how would you spend your time?
5 Reverse order:
If it rained, you would get wet.
You would get wet if it rained.
Conditionals: Unfulfilled Condition
Used to describe that something did not happen because a certain condition was not fulfilled or refers to an impossible condition and its probable result in past.

1 Regret:
If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam.
2 Perfect Conditional Tense (would + have + past participle):
I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
3 Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation:
You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
4 Interrogative version:
Would she have gone to concert if you had given her the tickets?
5 Reverse order:
If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
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